Before we learn about air brakes in road vehicles, let's look at how the brakes in your car work. Anyone who has driven a car knows when he or she pushes the brake pedal towards the floor the car slows and eventually stops. But how in the world can our foot stop a 3,000 pound (1,361 kg) car traveling down the road at high speeds?To begin with, let's discuss the different types of brakes and then we can explore the different components. Every rolling vehicle, including trains, tractor trailer trucks, buses and cars contain one of two types of systems. Hydraulic brakes, found in light duty trucks and passenger cars, use hydraulic fluid or oil to operate their brakes. Air brakes, which we'll break down in the next section, use air to operate their brakes. Let's look at the differences.In a hydraulic system, fluid is stored in a reservoir commonly referred to as a master cylinder. When you push the brake pedal, fluid is pumped through brake hoses or lines into pistons mounted on each wheel. These brake pistons either push against two brake shoes, which expand and cause friction inside a brake drum, or against a brake pad, which clamps down on a brake rotor. Below are the components in a hydraulic disc brake system.Brake reservoir: Contains hydraulic brake fluidMaster cylinder: Device that pumps the fluid from the reservoir to brake lines that run throughout the vehicleBrake lines: Rubber or steel braided hoses that run from the master cylinder to each brake caliperBrake caliper: A steel housing that mounts on a fixed point of the brake rotor that contains a piston and brake padsBrake piston: A round rod that extends and pushes against a brake pad when hydraulic fluid is fed from the master cylinderBrake pad: A metal backing pad with a semi metallic overlay that grips the steel rotorBrake rotor: A steel disc mounted to each wheel and hub that the pads grasp to stop the wheels from rotating[source: Brakes]Here's a look at how some of the parts fit within a disc brake.Before disc brakes, cars relied on drum brakes. The principal mechanics were the same, but drum brakes used brake shoes set inside a drum that was mounted on the hub, versus a rotor. Disc brakes increase stopping power, as they are more easily cooled and have more surface area to grasp. In addition, brake dust, which forms as the brake pads wear and decreases braking ability, is vented more easily with disc brakes than with drum brakes. For more information on disc brakes and drum brakes, read How Disc Brakes Work and How Drum Brakes Work. Air Jordan 6 Rings Black Dark Charcoal ,Cheap Retro Bred 11s Low Og Air Jordan 7 Retro Bordeaux 2011 Air Jordan 6 Rings Powder Blue Air Jordan 10 Retro Chicago Bulls Cheap Air Jordan 11 Bred Low Gs Cheap Air Jordan Bred 11s Retro Air Jordan 7 Cardinals 2011 Cheap Air Jordan 11 Low Bred Og Air Jordan 11 Ultimate Gift of Flight Travelport posts Q1 net revenue of $666 millionBy Dan Luzadder Travelport Ltd. narrowed its net loss to $27 million in first quarter 2008, from a $32 million loss in first quarter 2007; first quarter net revenue was flat year over year, at $666 million. The company, parent of the Worldspan and Galileo GDSs, Orbitz Worldwide and others, reported $145 million in earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, a 39% gain over the first quarter of last year. Adjusted net revenue, which excluded Orbitz Worldwide but included Worldspan in all periods, as if both transactions had taken place in January 2007, declined by 2%, from $683 million in the first quarter of 2007. Adjusted EBITDA was $173 million, a decline of 7% from the same period last year. Travelport attributed the decline to Worldspan's loss of business segments from Expedia prior to Travelport's acquisition of Worldspan last year. The company said cost savings from a re engineering of Travelport's business came at an annual run rate of $172 million. Cost savings from synergies resulting from Worldspan's integration with Galileo were on track, the company said, with annual run rate savings at $47 million. Travelport CEO Jeff Clarke said in a statement that, excluding the impact of the Worldspan acquisition, the company had net revenue and EBITDA growth of 3% and 8% respectively. offer 'Beercation' packageThe JW Marriott Chicago has partnered with the Lagunitas Brewing Co. to offer the Lagunitas Beercation package through Dec. Stay. Love' planThe Scarlet Huntington, a 134 room hotel in San Francisco's Nob Hill neighborhood, introduced the Eat. Stay. Love package, valid through Nov. 30. Air Jordan 6 Rings Black Dark Charcoal,Much to the amazement of his wife and family, the Worcester native jumped into his passion: hip hop inspired streetwear. Rivera decided that what had been a hobby all his life would now become his career. That decision led Rivera, now 34 with a scruffy beard, dark rimmed glasses, and a seemingly irrepressible optimism, to earn a reputation as one of the city rising stars in the world of limited, pricey, and highly coveted sneakers and streetwear. He has collaborated with companies like Adidas and New Balance to design sought after special edition sneakers, and is branching into sportswear. has a knack for bringing back special products in a special way, said Joe La Puma, senior editorial strategist of Complex magazine, which focuses on sneaker and streetwear culture. pretty much been batting a thousand with the collaborations that he done. Its 1980s and 1990s influences can be seen in sneakers, which are often clever reinventions of originals, along with high end Japanese denim, jackets, T shirts, bags, and accessories. Particular offerings are often the result of collaborations between brands, or between brands and celebrities or designers. Sneakerheads line up for hours to get their hands on shoes that are produced in limited runs. Just last week, police donned riot gear in some parts of the country when Nike re introduced a limited run of a sneaker from the 1990s. Rivera, who is simply known as Frank the Butcher, likes to point out that both he and streetwear culture in general grew from the idea of making something out of nothing. He grew up in a working class family in a rough neighborhood with no formal artistic or fashion training; streetwear came from urban kids who improvised a new way of dressing out of limited resources. was super obsessed with hip hop, so that was really my gateway into fashion, art, music, and lifestyle, Rivera said on a recent afternoon, sipping ice water at the Four Seasons Hotel. was wearing a North Face jacket, and I wasn skiing. We were just taking things that looked good and putting them together. With hip hop being my main inspiration, it taught me that you can assemble style as long as you have an eye for things, a certain attitude, and a certain perspective. That perspective has brought Rivera to his latest challenge: He been named creative director of Boylston Trading Co., an offshoot of the multimillion dollar local online retailer Karmaloop. The expertly curated online shop will open an appointment only retail location on Boylston Street this spring. me, Frank was one of the biggest names locally in streetwear, said Karmaloop founder Greg Selkoe. seemed like a perfect fit. We started Boylston Trading Co. because we wanted to set apart the higher end and more expensive collaborations from Karmaloop. Trading Co. is the most recent stop on a creative journey that Rivera started in Worcester, where he still lives with his wife and two children. Besides an obsession with music (his nickname the Butcher comes from his ability to chop beats and add samples to hip hop), what Rivera took away from hip hop culture was its aspirational nature. Its message of a better life hooked him, and his eye was drawn to what local and national acts his favorites in his youth were Slick Rick, KRS One, a Tribe Called Quest, and the Beastie Boys were wearing. Rivera dabbled in a bit of everything. He deejayed, he rapped, and he started writing about the rappers he loved for small and newspapers. He also created art, even offering to design album covers, posters, and T shirts for groups he loved. led me down this road where I began to think that know, I think I could have a career at this, he recalled. was like roulette. There were a lot of good things happening around me, and a lot of bad things happening around me. All mixed up. I just landed on being creative and pushing that. addition to writing about bands and designing for them, Rivera starting adding his insider street perspective to a weekly podcast devoted to sneakers and streetwear. injected myself into the center of this culture, said Rivera. podcast [called was listened to by all these independent brands. And footwear brands really listened to us. A lot of kids in the scene had a suburban perspective. I was looking at it from an urban street perspective. But Rivera also had a family to support. He married his high school sweetheart and had his first child in 1997. But it was the death of his brother, whom he also describes as his best friend, that led him to take the risk that has led to his recent success. One day shortly after the accident, he sat down at his desk at the metal shop and decided that couldn do it anymore. He worked as a brand manager and designer at Concepts, the local clothing and sneaker boutique. It was at Concepts where he had his first collaboration with Timberland, a brand he has worn since he was a teenager. It was also at Concepts where he collaborated with New Balance on a sneaker called the Kennedy, which incorporates nautical and patriotic colors inspired by the late president. was in a room with these guys, and it was like, they really listening to what I saying, he recalls. really have an opinion and knowledge that these guys really respect and need. He had his greatest success at Boylston Trading Co. with the Adidas Forum Hi, a sneaker that Rivera reimagined from his youth. Street and drug dealing culture influenced fashion on the streets of Worcester, and Rivera took notice of the German designed shoe for American basketball. It was the ultimate status symbol of the streets. Rivera did what he has since done with many of his collaborations: He taken the basic form of the sneaker, kept essential details, and added others. In this case he found an original pair, flew to Portland, Ore., and reworked it into high fashion. He is a historian with an eye for details that he subtly incorporates into everything he designs. Even the logo of Boylston Trading Co. is a frog skeleton, because Boylston Street was once called Frog Lane.
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